Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a monocotyledon, has fed more people over a longer time than has any other crop. It is spectacularly diverse, both in the way it is grown and how it is used by humans. Rice is unique because it can grow in wet environments that other crops cannot survive in. Such wet environments are abundant across Asia. Most varieties (“lowland rice”) must be planted in stagnant water and require 200 mm rainfall/month or an equivalent amount from irrigation, whereas others (“upland rice”) require less irrigation and 750 mm rainfall in a 3-4 months period.
Rice originates from Asia, where it has been cultivated since 6500 BC and is now naturalized in most tropical and subtropical regions. Rice is produced in a wide range of locations and under a variety of climatic conditions, from the wettest areas in the world to the driest deserts. Despite Asia’s dominance in rice production and consumption, rice is also very important in Africa and Latin America.
Paddy rice, or “lowland rice”, is grown in a flooded or well irr igated field. Paddies require a maintained level of water, around 10 to 15 cm (3.9 to 5.9 in), for the growth part and the fields are then dried before harvesting. The crop is produced at sea level on coastal plains and in delta regions, and to a height of 2,600 m on the slopes of Nepal’s mountains. Fields can be built into steep hillsides as terraces and adjacent to depressed or steeply sloped features such as rivers or marshes. They can require a great deal of labor and materials to create and need large quantities of water for irrigation. Paddy-field farming remains the dominant form of growing rice in modern times.
Paddy rice is a staple crop for much of the world’s population. Monitoring the rice market is a critical task considering more than half of the world’s population consume rice on a daily basis. South and East Asia are the two main regions for paddy rice production in the world. Rice is grown in more than a hundred countries, with a total harvested area of approximately 160 million hectares. Nearly 90% of rice is grown in Asia. The world’s largest rice producers by far are China and India, followed by Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Philippines, and Brazil. With close to 220 million metric tons, China is responsible for about one third of the total global paddy rice production.
FertiGlobal®: supporting paddy rice cultivation management through every growing stage, strengthening the plants
and increasing productivity with plant nutrition and biostimulant technologies.